Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli in husbandry animals. The African perspective

Autor: Alonso Arribas, Carla AndreaZarazaga Chamorro, Myriam; Ben Sallem, R.; Jouini, A.; Ben Slama, K.; Torres Manrique, Carmen

Tipo de documento: Artículo de revista

Revista: Letters in Applied Microbiology. ISSN: 0266-8254. Año: 2017. Número: 5. Volumen: 64. Páginas: 318-334.


SCIMAGO (datos correspondientes al año 2014):
,628  SNIP: ,891 



  • Aarestrup, F.M., Wegener, H.C., Collignon, P., Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies (2008) Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 6, pp. 733-750
  • Abdallah, H.M., Reuland, E.A., Wintermans, B.B., Al Naiemi, N., Koek, A., Abdelwahab, A.M., Ammar, A.M., Mohamed, A.A., Extended-spectrum β-lactamases and/or carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail chicken meat in Zagazig, Egypt (2015) PLoS ONE, 10
  • Adelowo, O.O., Fagade, O.E., Agersø, Y., Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria (2014) J Infect Dev Ctries, 8, pp. 1103-1112
  • Adenipekum, E.O., Jackson, C.R., Oluwadun, A., Iwalokun, B.A., Frye, J.G., Barrett, J.B., Hiott, L.M., Woodley, T.A., Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from food animals in Lagos, Nigeria (2015) Microb Drug Resist, 21, pp. 358-365
  • Adesokan, H.K., Akanbi, I.O., Akanbi, I.M., Obaweda, R.A., Pattern of antimicrobial usage in livestock animals in south-western Nigeria: the need for alternative plans (2015) Onderstepoort J Vet Res, 82, p. 816
  • Ahmed, A.M., Shimamoto, T., Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis in Egypt (2011) Microbial Immunol, 55, pp. 318-327
  • Ahmed, A.M., Shimamoto, T., Shimamoto, T., Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from septicemic broilers (2013) Int J Med Microbiol, 303, pp. 475-483
  • Aibinu, I., Odugbemi, T., Koenig, W., Ghebremedhin, B., Sequence type ST131 and ST10 complex (ST617) predominant among CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli isolates from Nigeria (2012) Clin Microbiol Infect, 18, pp. E49-E51
  • Alghoribi, M.F., Gibreel, T.M., Famham, G., Al Johani, S.M., Balkhy, H.H., Upton, M., Antibiotic-resistant ST38, ST131 and ST405 strains are the leading uropathogenic Escherichia coli clones in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2015) J Antimicrob Chermother, 70, pp. 2757-2762
  • Ateba, C.N., Bezuidenhout, C.C., Characterisation of Escherichia coli O157 strains from humans, cattle and pigs in the North-West Province, South Africa (2008) Int J Food Microbiol, 128, pp. 181-188
  • Bankole, H.S., Dougnon, V.T., Johnson, R.C., Dougnon, T.J., Yehouenou, B., Kougblenou, S., Agonsa, M., Dadie, T., Assessment of the contamination of some foodstuffs by Escherichia coli O157 in Benin, West Africa (2014) Int J Microbiol, 2014, p. 417848
  • Barguigua, A., El Otmani, F., Talmi, M., Zerouali, K., Timiniouni, M., Prevalence and types of extended spectrum β-lactamases among urinary Escherichia coli isolates in Moroccan community (2013) Microb Pathog, 61-62, pp. 16-22
  • Baron, S., Jouy, E., Larvor, E., Eono, F., Bougeard, S., Kempf, I., Impact of third-generation-cephalosporin administration in hatcheries on fecal Escherichia coli antimicrobial resistance in broilers and layers (2014) Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 58, pp. 5428-5434
  • Belmahdi, M., Bakour, S., Al Bayssari, C., Touati, A., Rolain, J.M., Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria (2016) J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 6, pp. 108-112
  • Ben Sallem, R., Ben Slama, K., Estepa, V., Jouini, A., Gharsa, H., Klibi, N., Sáenz, Y., Ruiz-Larrea, F., Prevalence and characterisation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates in healthy volunteers in Tunisia (2012) Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 31, pp. 1511-1516
  • Ben Sallem, R., Ben Slama, K., Sáenz, Y., Rojo-Bezares, B., Estepa, V., Jouini, A., Gharsa, H., Klibi, N., Prevalence and characterization of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)- and CMY-2-producing Escherichia coli isolates from heatlhy food-producing animals in Tunisia (2012) Foodborne Pathogen Dis, 9, pp. 1137-1142
  • Ben Sallem, R., Ben Slama, K., Rojo-Bezares, B., Porres-Osante, N., Jouini, A., Klibi, N., Boudabous, A., Sáenz, Y., IncI1 plasmids carrying bla(CTX-M-1) or bla (CMY-2) genes in Escherichia coli from healthy humans and animals in Tunisia (2014) Microb Drug Resist, 20, pp. 495-500
  • Ben Slama, K., Jouini, A., Ben Sallem, R., Somalo, S., Sáenz, Y., Estepa, C., Boudabous, A., Torres, C., Prevalence of broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in food samples in Tunisia, and characterization of integrons and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms implicated (2010) Int J Microbiol Food, 137, pp. 281-286
  • Ben Slama, K., Ben Sallen, R., Jouini, A., Rachid, S., Moussa, L., Sáenz, Y., Estepa, V., Somalo, S., Diversity of genetic lineages among CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli strains in a Tunisian hospital (2011) Curr Microbiol, 62, pp. 1794-1801
  • Braun, S.D., Ahmed, M.F.E., El-Adawi, H., Hotzel, H., Engelmann, I., Weiβ, D., Monecke, S., Ehricht, R., Surveillance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in dairy cattle farms in the Nile Delta, Egypt (2016) Front Microbiol, 7, p. 1020
  • Cantas, L., Shah, S.Q.A., Cavaco, L.M., Manaia, C.M., Walsh, F., Popowska, M., Garelick, H., Bürgmann, H., A brief multi-disciplinary review on antimicrobial resistance in medicine and its linkage to the global environmental microbiota (2013) Front Microbiol, 4, p. 96
  • Chantziaras, I., Boyen, F., Callens, B., Dewulf, J., Correlation between veterinary antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals: a report on seven countries (2014) J Antimicrob Chemother, 69, pp. 827-834
  • Chishimba, K., Hang'ombe, B.M., Muzandu, K., Mshana, S.E., Matee, M.I., Nakajima, C., Suzuki, Y., Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in market-ready chickens in Zambia (2016) Int J Microbiol, 2016, p. 5275724
  • Chouchani, C., Marrakchi, R., Ferchichi, L., El Salabi, A., Walsh, T.R., VIM and IMP metallo-β-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from environmental samples in a Tunisian hospital (2011) APMIS, 119, pp. 725-732
  • Cloeckaert, A., Praud, K., Lefevre, M., Doublet, B., Pardos, M., Granier, S.A., Brisabois, A., Weill, F.X., IncI1 plasmid carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-1 in Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry and humans in France, 2003 to 2008 (2010) Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 54, pp. 4484-4486
  • Dahmen, S., Bettaieb, D., Mansour, W., Boujaafar, N., Bouallèque, O., Arlet, G., Characterization and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in a Tunisian University Hospital (2010) Microb Drug Resist, 16, pp. 163-170
  • Dahmen, S., Haenni, M., Madec, J.Y., IncI1/ST3 plasmids contribute to the dissemination of the blaCTX-M-1 gene in Escherichia coli from several animal species in France (2012) J Antimicrob Chemother, 67, pp. 3011-3012
  • Day, M.J., Rodríguez, I., van Essen-Zandbergen, A., Dierikx, C., Kadlec, K., Schink, A.K., Wu, G., Chattway, M.A., Diversity of STs, plasmids and ESBL genes among Escherichia coli from humans, animals and food in Germany, the Netherlands and the UK (2016) J Antimicrob Chemother, 71, pp. 1178-1182
  • Donkor, E.S., Newman, M.J., Yeboah-Manu, D., Epidemiological aspects of non-human antibiotic usage and resistance: implications for the control of antibiotic resistance in Ghana (2012) Trop Med Int Health, 17, pp. 462-468
  • Eager, H., Swan, G., van Vuuren, M., A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals (2012) J S Afr Vet Assoc, 83, p. 16
  • Egea, P., López-Cerero, L., Torres, E., Gómez-Sánchez Mdel, C., Serrano, L., Navarro Sánchez-Ortiz, M.D., Rodríguez-Baño, J., Pascual, A., Increased raw poultry meat colonization by extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in the south of Spain (2012) Int J Food Microbiol, 159, pp. 69-73
  • Fashae, K., Ogunsola, F., Aarestrup, F.M., Hendriksen, R.S., Antimicrobial susceptibility and serovars of Salmonella from chickens and humans in Ibadan, Nigeria (2010) J Infect Dev Ctries, 4, pp. 484-494
  • Fortini, D., Fashae, K., García-Fernández, A., Villa, L., Carattoli, A., Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and β-lactamases in Escherichia coli from healthy animals from Nigeria (2011) JAC, 66, pp. 1269-1272
  • Grami, R., Mansour, W., Dahmen, S., Mehri, W., Haenni, M., Aouni, M., Madec, J.Y., The blaCTX-M-1 IncI1/ST3 plasmid is dominant in chickens and pets in Tunisia (2013) J Antimicrob Chemother, 68, pp. 2950-2952
  • Grami, R., Dahmen, S., Mansour, W., Mehri, W., Haenni, M., Aouni, M., Madec, J.Y., blaCTX-M-15-carrying F2:A-:B- plasmid in Escherichia coli from cattle milk in Tunisia (2014) Microb Drug Resis, 20, pp. 344-349
  • Grami, R., Mansour, W., Mehri, W., Bouallègue, O., Boujaâfar, N., Madec, J.Y., Haenni, M., Impact of food animal trade on the spread of mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance (2016) Euro Surveill, 21
  • Grave, K., Torren-Edo, J., Mackay, D., Comparison of the sales of veterinary antibacterial agents between 10 European Countries (2010) J Antimicrob Chemother, 65, pp. 2037-2040
  • Haenni, M., Poirel, L., Kieffer, N., Châtre, P., Saras, E., Métayer, V., Dumoulin, R., Nordmann, P., Co-occurrence of extended spectrum β lactamase and MCR-1 encoding genes on plasmids (2016) Lancet Infect Dis, 16, pp. 281-282
  • Hamza, E., Dorgham, S.M., Hamza, D.A., Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in broiler farming in Egypt (2016) J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 7, pp. 8-10
  • Hao, H., Cheng, G., Igbal, Z., Ai, X., Hussain, H.I., Huang, L., Dai, M., Wang, Y., Benefits and risks of antimicrobial use in food-producing animals (2014) Front Microbiol, 5, p. 288
  • Hosoi, Y., Asai, T., Koike, R., Tsuyuki, M., Suqiura, K., Use of veterinary antimicrobial agents from 2005 to 2010 in Japan (2013) Int J Antimicrob Agents, 41, pp. 489-490
  • Inwezerua, C., Mendoça, N., Calhau, V., Dominques, S., Adeleke, O.E., Da Silva, G.J., Occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in human and bovine isolates of Escherichia coli from Oyo state, Nigeria (2014) J Infect Dev Ctries, 8, pp. 774-779
  • Iweriebor, B.C., Iwu, C.J., Obim, L.B., Nwodo, U.U., Okoh, A.I., Multiple antibiotic resistances among Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 in feces of dairy cattle farms in Eastern Cape of South Africa (2015) BMC Microbiol, 15, p. 213
  • Jouini, A., Vinué, L., Slama, K.B., Sáenz, Y., Klibi, N., Hammami, S., Boudabous, A., Torres, C., Characterization of CTX-M and SHV extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and associated resistance genes in Escherichia coli strains of food samples in Tunisia (2007) J Antimicrob Chemother, 60, pp. 1137-1141
  • Jouini, A., Slama, K.B., Klibi, N., Sallem, R.B., Estepa, V., Vinué, L., Ruiz-Larrea, F., Boudabous, A., Lineages and virulence gene content among extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli strains of food origin in Tunisia (2013) J Food Prot, 76, pp. 323-327
  • Kateete, D.P., Kabugo, U., Baluku, H., Nyakarahuka, L., Kyobe, S., Okee, M., Najjuka, C.F., Joloba, M.L., Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from milkmen and cows with clinical mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda (2013) PLoS ONE, 8
  • Kilani, H., Abbassi, M.S., Ferjani, S., Mansouri, R., Sghaier, S., Ben Salem, R., Jaouani, I., Douja, G., Occurrence of bla CTX-M-1, qnrB1 and virulence genes in avian ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from Tunisia (2015) Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 5, p. 38
  • Lahlaoui, H., Ben Haj Khalifa, A., Ben Moussa, M., Epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae producing CTX-M type extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) (2014) Med Mal Infect, 44, pp. 400-404
  • Leski, T.A., Bangura, U., Jimmy, D.H., Ansumana, R., Lizewski, S.E., Li, R.W., Stenger, D.A., Taitt, C.R., Identification of blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, blaDIM-1 and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in hospital Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Sierra Leone (2013) J Clin Microbiol, 51, pp. 2435-2438
  • Luanda, C.M., Buza, J., Mwanyika, G., Lyimo, B., Mrutu, R., Call, D.R., Subbiah, M., Bacterial contamination of pork carcasses from Arusha, Tanzania (2016) GJAR, 3, pp. 806-817
  • Maamar, E., Hammami, S., Alonso, C.A., Dakhli, N., Abbassi, M.S., Ferjani, S., Hamzaoui, Z., Saidani, M., High prevalence of extended-spectrum and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from poultry in Tunisia (2016) Int J Food Microbiol, 231, pp. 69-75
  • Mainda, G., Bessell, P.R., Muma, J.B., McAteer, S.P., Chase-Topping, M.E., Gibbons, J., Stevens, M.P., Gally, D.L., Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from Zambian dairy cattle across different production systems (2015) Sci Rep, 5, p. 12439
  • Maron, D.F., Smith, T.J., Nachman, K.E., Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey (2013) Global Health, 9, p. 48
  • Meguenni, N., Le Devendec, L., Jouy, E., Le Corvec, M., Bounar-Kechih, S., Rabah Bakour, D., Kempf, I., First description of an extended-spectrum cephalosporin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli clone in Algeria (2015) Avian Dis, 59, pp. 20-23
  • Mezhoud, H., Boyen, F., Touazi, L.H., Garmyn, A., Moula, M., Smet, A., Haesbrouck, F., Martel, A., Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in broiler breeding roosters: presence in the reproductive tract and effect on sperm motility (2015) Anim Reprod Sci, 159, pp. 205-211
  • Mnif, B., Ktari, S., Rhimi, F.M., Hammami, A., Extensive dissemination of CTX-M-1 and CMY-2-producing Escherichia coli in poultry farms in Tunisia (2012) Lett Appl Microbiol, 55, pp. 407-413
  • Moquet, O., Bouchiat, C., Kinana, A., Seck, A., Arouna, O., Bercion, R., Breurec, S., Garin, B., Class D OXA-48 carbapenemase in multidrug-resistant enterobacteria, Senegal (2011) Emerg Infect Dis, 17, pp. 143-144
  • Mrutu, R., Luanda, C., Rugumisa, B., Mwanyika, G., Subbiah, M., Call, D.R., Buza, J., Detection of microbial surface contamination and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli on beef carcasses in Arusha, Tanzania (2016) Afr J Microbiol Res, 10, pp. 1148-1155
  • Mshana, S.E., Falgenhauer, L., Mirambo, M.M., Mushi, M.F., Moremi, N., Julius, R., Seni, J., Imirzalioglu, C., Predictors of blaCTX-M-15 in varieties of Escherichia coli genotypes from humans in community settings in Mwanza, Tanzania (2016) BMC Infect Dis, 16, p. 187
  • Mushi, M.F., Mshana, S.E., Imirzalioglu, C., Bwanga, F., Carbapenemase genes among multidrug resistant Gram negative clinical isolates from a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania (2014) Biomed Res Int, 2014, p. 303104
  • Ndihokubwayo, J.B., Yahaya, A.A., Desta, A.T., Ki-Zerbo, G., Asamoah-Odei, E., Keita, B., Pana, A.P., Nkhoma, W., Antimicrobial resistance in the African Region: issues, challenges and actions proposed (2013) Afr Heal Monit, 16, pp. 27-30
  • Odwar, J.A., Kikuvi, G., Kariuki, J.N., Kariuki, S., A cross-sectional study on the microbiological quality and safety of raw chicken meats sold in Nairobi, Kenya (2014) BMC Res Notes, 7, p. 627
  • Ogbolu, D.O., Daini, O.A., Ogunledun, A., Alli, A.O., Webber, M.A., High levels of multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of gram-negative pathogens from Nigeria (2011) Int J Antimicrob Agents, 37, pp. 62-66
  • Ojer-Usoz, E., González, D., Vitas, A.I., Leiva, J., García-Jalón, I., Febles-Casquero, A., Escolano, M.L., Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in meat products sold in Navarra, Spain (2013) Meat Sci, 93, pp. 316-321
  • Ojo, O.E., Schwarz, S., Michael, G.B., Detection and characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from chicken production chains in Nigeria (2016) Vet Microbiol, 194, pp. 62-68
  • Olaitan, A.O., Chabou, S., Okdah, L., Morand, S., Rolain, J.J., Dissemination of the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene (2016) Lancet Infect Dis, 16, p. 147
  • Olowe, O.A., Adewuni, O., Odewale, G., Ojurongbe, O., Adefionye, O.J., Phenotypic and molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli obtained from animal fecal samples in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria (2015) J Environ Public Health, 2015, p. 497980
  • Ombarak, R.A., Hinenoya, A., Awasthi, S.P., Iguchi, A., Shima, A., Elbagory, A.R., Yamasaki, S., Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw cheese in Egypt (2016) Int J Food Microbiol, 221, pp. 69-76
  • Overdevest, I., Willemsen, I., Rijnsburger, M., Eustace, A., Xu, L., Hawkey, P., Heck, M., Savelkoul, P., Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes of Escherichia coli in chicken meat and humans, The Netherlands (2011) Emerg Infect Dis, 17, pp. 1216-1222
  • Perreten, V., Strauss, C., Collaud, A., Gerber, D., Colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in South Africa (2016) Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 60, pp. 4414-4415
  • Rasmussen, M.M., Opintan, J.A., Frimodt-Møller, N., Styrishave, B., Beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates in imported and locally produced chicken meat from Ghana (2015) PLoS ONE, 10
  • Reist, M., Geser, N., Hächler, H., Schärrer, S., Stephan, R., ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: occurrence, risk factors for fecal carriage and strain traits in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years sampled at abattoir level (2013) PLoS ONE, 8
  • Rhouma, M., Beaundry, F., Thériault, W., Letellier, A., Colistin in pig production: chemistry, mechanism of antibacterial action, microbial resistance emergence, and one health perspectives (2016) Front Microbiol, 7, p. 1789
  • Robin, F., Aggoune-Khinache, N., Delmas, J., Naim, M., Bonnet, R., Novel VIM metallo-β-lactamse variant from clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from Algeria (2010) Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 54, pp. 466-470
  • Rocha, F.R., Pinto, V.P., Barbosa, F.C., The spread of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Brazil: a systematic review (2016) Microb Drug Resist, 22, pp. 301-311
  • Rugumisa, B.T., Call, D.R., Mwanyika, G.O., Mrutu, R.I., Luanda, C.M., Lyimo, B.M., Subbiah, M., Buza, J.J., Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant fecal Escherichia coli isolates from penned broiler and scavenging local chickens in Arusha, Tanzania (2016) J Food Prot, 79, pp. 1424-1429
  • Sangare, S.A., Maiga, A.I., Guindo, I., Maiga, A., Camara, N., Savadogo, S., Diallo, S., Bougoudogo, F., Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures in Africa (2015) Med Mal Infect, 45, pp. 374-382
  • Schaumburg, F., Alabi, A.S., Frielinghaus, L., Grobusch, M.P., Köck, R., Becker, K., Issifou, S., Kremsner, P.G., The risk to import ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus through chicken meat trade in Gabon (2014) BMC Microbiol, 14, p. 286
  • Sekyere, J.O., Govinden, U., Essack, S., The molecular epidemiology and genetic environment of carbapenemases detected in Africa (2016) Microb Drug Resist, 22, pp. 59-68
  • Seni, J., Falgenhauer, L., Simeo, N., Mirambo, M.M., Imirzalioglu, C., Matee, M., Rweyemamu, M., Chakraborty, T., Multiple ESBL-producing Escherichia coli sequence types carrying quinolone and aminoglycoside resistance genes circulating in companion and domestic farm animals in Mwanza, Tanzania, harbor commonly occurring plasmids (2016) Front Microbiol, 7, p. 142
  • Soufi, L., Abbassi, M.S., Sáenz, Y., Vinué, L., Somalo, S., Zarazaga, M., Abbas, A., Dbaya, R., Prevalence and diversity of integrons and associated resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from poultry meat in Tunisia (2009) Foodborne Pathog Dis, 6, pp. 1067-1073
  • Storberg, V., ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Africa-a non-systematic literature review of research published 2008-2012 (2014) Infect Ecol Epidemiol, 4, pp. 50-55
  • Tadesse, D.A., Zhao, S., Tong, E., Ayers, S., Singh, A., Bartholomew, M.J., McDermott, P.F., Antimicrobial drug resistance in Escherichia coli from humans and food animals, United States, 1950–2002 (2012) Emerg Infect Dis, 18, pp. 741-749
  • Tse, H., Yuen, K.Y., Dissemination of the mcr-1 colistin resistance gen (2016) Lancet Infect Dis, 16, pp. 145-146
  • Van Boeckel, T.P., Brower, C., Gilbert, M., Grenfell, B.T., Levin, S.A., Robinson, T.P., Teillant, A., Laxminarayan, R., Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112, pp. 5649-5654
  • Van den Bogaard, A.E., Stobberingh, E.E., Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics. Links between animals and humans (2000) Int J Antimicrob Agents, 14, pp. 327-335
  • Wesonga, S.M., Muluyi, G.M., Okemo, P.O., Kariuki, S., Antibiotic resistant salmonella and Escherichia coli isolated from indigenous Gallus domesticus in Nairobi, Kenya (2010) East Afr Med J, 87, pp. 205-210
  • Yousfi, M., Touati, A., Mairi, A., Brasme, L., Gharout-Sait, A., Guillard, T., De Champs, C., Emergence of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from companion animals in Algeria (2016) Microb Drug Resist, 22, pp. 342-346